EASTERN RED CEDAR, JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA - A COMMON, OVERLOOKED TREE WITH HIDDEN POTENTIAL

The following article gradually grew out of a talk given to the Cullowhee Native Plants conference in 1987 when I gave a lecture on various aspects of native versus exotic plants in the landscape. During the talk I showed slides of a variety of wonderful forms of the eastern red cedar in the wild and mentioned how overlooked this fine native tree was in the nursery/landscape industry. Following the talk Mr. Mark Kane visited with me about the possibility of doing an article on red cedar for Fine Gardening - a new magazine then just in the planning stages. I indicated my great difficulty in writing articles and though I would like to do it - I warned him in reality it was unlikely I would ever manage to actually get one written. Later that fall he visited North Carolina to meet many people in the gardening world and we had the opportunity to visit at length and philosophize about plants and life - and a vague promise was again made to try to work on the article perhaps during my upcoming sabbatic leave when I would"get incredible amounts of writing done". (HA!)

As I took off on the leave - his letters followed me from country to country always asking about how the article was coming. Finally on a rainy day in Athens in April the spirit (and great guilt) moved me and I pounded out an article in one day on the portable computer Iwas traveling with. (Which I then hand copied off the computer screen onto paper to mail to him, where it was typed back into a computer for editing - totally losing the advantage of easy disk transfer of information.) By the time I came back in summer we finished the editing and it was eventually published in the December issue.

With magazine space limitations and their desire for quality writing, it was necessary to edit the engthy and rambling article I typically write. Although we publicized and recommended subscribing to Fine Gardening in the last newsletter - many of our newsletter "Friends" will not have seen this article so they've given me permission to publish the information here and I will use the full Raulston version (I need some page filling material to be able to get the newsletter out again!)

One of the ironies of the landscape plant world is the balance often needed for a plant to become a "desired" species for widespread commercial useage. If it is too difficult or specific in requirements it is eliminated or left to advanced specialist gardeners - but on the other end of the spectrum if it is too common or easy to grow it is often disparaged as either being "weedy" or a "trash plant" which would cause sophisticated gardeners to lose face by including it in their plantings. Also, the more widespread and common plants are, in a sense they become more invisible as a part of the everyday background. It is easy to overlook the merits of a plant which makes it tough, dependable, and useful when the right situation is available.

In my work at The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) the primary mission is to evaluate new trees and shrubs for merit and possible introduction to the nursery/landscape industies of the southeastern U.S. As a somewhat natural course of events - the more exotic, rare or new a plant is, the more interesting it seems to become to the specialist because of the difficulty in acquiring it, the status value of showing your "choice" item to visitors, and the chance to learn new information about previously ungrown materials.

Some years ago I was somewhat shocked when a NCSU landscape architecture faculty member proclaimed to me that the Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana, was the finest N. C. native woody plant for landscape use. A first reaction was to violently protest with a list of the outstanding alternative selections possible from our extraordinarily rich native flora: Sweet Gum - Liquidambar styraciflua (featured in a February Horticulture magazine article- coming here in the next newsletter); Flowering Dogwood - Cornus florida; Silverbell - Halesia carolinana; Black Gum - Nyssa sylvatica; Red Chokecherry - Aronia arbutifolia; Bald Cypress - Taxodium distichum; Southern Magnolia - Magnolia grandiflora; Florida Leucothoe - Leucothoe populifolia; Mountain Laurel - Kalmia latifolia; Red Maple - Acer rubrum; Ironwood - Carpinus caroliniana; Virginia Pine - Pinus virginiana; Bayberry - Myrica ceriferaa; all the many fine native azaleas and rhododendrons- and a list that could go on and on for pages.

But as time passed and I had the chance to slowly meditate about the pros and cons of this statement - it became clear that I had indeed let this plant I had known all my life become invisible to me. It would grow on virtually any site without special care, had almost no pests which would destroy it, would live for centuries under the right conditions, etc. Eventually it became an answer (almost the answer) for a final exam question I would throw at students in a graduate course I teach at NCSU entitled "Physiology of Landscape Plants". This course attempts to teach landscape architecture and landscape horticulture students the applied plant physiological reasons why plants succeed or fail in the landscape - aspects of heat, drought, salts, soils, freezing, etc

.After a semester of discussing individual environmental stress factors; the question I posed to students at the end was: "Name a specific tree which meets the following requirements for a given landscape - can be grown from USDA Hardiness Zone 2 through 9, drought tolerant, tolerant of high or low pH soils whether loose and gravely or compacted, minimal pest problems, salt and wind tolerant for beach conditions, evergreen, attractive fruit, long lived, tolerates high winds and has a solid root system to prevent "wind throw", propagates easily, is easy to nursery transplant and establish in the landscape, and is rapid growing when young."

Many students facing such a demanding list of requirements answer in frustration that a plastic plant was the only possible answer. (Not correct as it does not grow rapidly when young!). Yet most had grown up with the red cedar around them all their lives and saw it daily - but its merits were truly invisible and they rarely considered it as a desirable landscape plant in their professional work. It remains even more invisible in commercial trade with rare production in eastern and southeastern states - and a bit more common in the midwest and plains states where good tough evergreen trees are harder to select. One of the commercial nursery production limitations of this plant is that the young form is too stiffly columnar and so unlike the more irregular and picturesque nature of older plants. To produce an old plant with "character" requires too many years for economic feasibility.

In recent years in N. C. a new landscape industry trend has developed with tree spade transplanting of old specimen red cedars from development sites, pastures, etc. for commercial office park and city plantings. They can be handled this way quite easily with few losses and the public (and landscape professionals) is beginning to appreciate just what a fine plant is in their midst.

The red cedar is native to all 37 states east of the North Dakota to Texas Great Plains area and under cultivation it would likely grow at least somewhere in all 50 of the states - a truly remarkable range of tolerances matched by few other woody plants. A very closely allied species, Juniperus scopulorum , the Rocky Mountain juniper, is native west of the Great Plains from Colorado to the Pacific - so closely related that individuals and cultivars of the two species are often difficult to tell apart with cross listings in commercial sources. Some authorities feel that the two are essentially ecotypes of the same species - and the "lumpers" and "splitters" arguments go on forever. Generally the Rocky Mountain juniper and its cultivars have a bluer color, the flowers are different, and it ripens its seeds the second year after their formation rather than first year. They will freely hybridize with the eastern red cedar when planted together. In general the Rocky Mountain juniper is less successful in eastern landscapes with the higher humidity and are more disease-susceptible than the eastern red cedar.

The eastern red cedar was an important tree to me in my early childhood in the plains wheat farming belt of Oklahoma. A line of old cedars near our farm home had been planted in the 1930's during the period of massive windbelt plantings to stabilize Dust Bowl conditions. This mature planting of gnarled growth and dense foliage provided an ideal place for a child to learn to climb trees with nicely spaced limbs all the way to the ground and few interior branches (through shading out of growth over the years) to impede progress upward. As skill and courage developed, the top of the tallest tree became a secret observation tower to scan the flat plains for objects and activities in all directions. At the base, the clear ground area under the skirt of the limbs with a layer of the brown scale leaf/needles provided an ideal shady play area out of the summer sun and heat. Many years later in my professional career I learned of "allelopathy" - the chemical inhibition of weed seed germination through leachates from the dropped foliage which kept that zone clear under the tree with a built in biological herbicide.

As the only native coniferous tree available in the area - the red cedar was also our traditional Christmas tree - with endless driving around in pastures of the area and discussions to chose the perfect tree to cut for the home each year. And I also have the memory of how rapidly the tree would dehydrate in the house - and the brittleness and prickly dry foliage when dismantling it. Because of the longer use life of firs, spruces, and pines - and improved shipping and handling conditions to move them throughout the country, red cedar has declined from its traditional role as he Christmas tree in many sections of the U.S. But it is still ntation grown and sold for this purpose; and remains the memory of childhood Christmas to many ople today. For many areas it
is the appropriate tree for traditional decoration of historic homes - both as a decorated tree and for
roping and wreaths.

The red cedar also has historic and commercial use in varying ways from the fragrant red wood used
to line closets and clothing storage chests, for pencils, carving, and some paneling. Cedar posts are
noted for their long life with the rot resistant red heartwood, for rustic garden construction, and
garden stakes. Red cedar oil is extracted from the wood and is used in perfumes and as an insect
repellent. With the allelopathic properties mentioned earlier, needles raked from under trees and applied as a mulch in the garden can be an effective biological herbicide (don't try it on your flower or vegetable seedbeds!) for growing plants or perennial plantings.

The main biological problems for the red cedar are bagworms which can appear as heavy localized and cyclic populations. In smaller quantities they can be hand picked and chemical controls are also available when required. The cedar apple rust disease affects the tree but causes it no serious harm some consider the purplish grey galls on the tree to be somewhat ornamental and even appealing!). The main problem of course is that the red cedar is the alternate host for this disease which can be so devastating to susceptive apple and hawthorn cultivars. For this reason it is not recommended for planting in areas with such plants. Deer will eat red cedar foliage, and where deer are numerous and hungry, they may strip trees as far up as they can reach.

In the wild, red cedars can be extremely variable in appearance depending on individual plant variations, species variation, habitat, and age. Although trees can get up to 100' in height, in cultivation they are generally seen as 20-40' specimens. The foliage color of red cedars will often change with the seasons. The new growth is a tender green before changing to the mature color which may vary from a pale green to a dark, almost "black" green. In winter, the foliage on some trees darkens and turns purplish. In the plains states where bright sunlight and very low temperatures may exist in winter - foliage browning due to excess transpiration causing leaf scorch can be objectionable. Red cedar foliage consists of scale-like leaves which are narrow and very short, between 1/16th inch and 3/8th inch long, arranged in 4 rows that give the twig a squarrish cross-section. They overlap considerably and lie almost flat on the twig (in the adult form); but on seedlings and young trees there are also (juvenile) leaves that stand up with a softer, "fluffy" texture. Krussman offers the following suggestions for sorting out J. chinensis and virginiana - juvenile leaves f chinensis are usually in whorls of three; whereas virginiana are usually paired, or whorled on the terminal shoot; the adult scale leaves on chinensis are "apex obtuse and bowed inward", with virginiana "acute on the apex and not incurved".

There are variations in general form with northern populations (often classified as J. virginiana var. crebra) having more of a narrow conical shape than the more broadly tapered southern types. In areas with frequent high winds - beaches and the Great Plains - trees will be dense and compact with highly ornamental shapes resembling large bonsai specimens. Red cedar is adaptable to shearing for hedges or topiary, but cuts made to older trunks without green foliage will usually not resprout from a heavy branch stub.

As individual trees age they usually change from narrowly columnar when young, with the crown becoming wider and more irregular with age. Lower limbs will shade out with a distinct trunk and spreading crown developing on older trees. In areas with major ice storms, old trees often have missing sections where lateral branches with heavy weight loads have split out - but this can in a sense add to the picturesque quality of ancient trees (up to a point of course). The amount of individual plant variation within any given population is also immense and in a fence row or roadway planting of seedling trees one can often find a complete range of shapes, textures, foliage color, fruiting ability, etc. Although the best forms of red cedar are magnificent; on the other end of the scale - the worst can be among the rattiest and ugliest of trees in existance. This lack of uniformity has somewhat hindered the acceptance of the plant in commercial channels which demands uniformity for formal plantings. Seedling red cedars which are easy and cheap to produce (collect the bluish "berries" in winter, moist cold stratify for 3-4 months, and sow) have great variation; and clonal plants (named cultivars) are generally more difficult to propagate by cuttings or grafting than clones of the Chinese Juniper - Juniperus chinensis - which accounts in part for the greater commercial popularity of the latter.

It can be worth a gardeners effort to look closely at wild trees if living where the species is native to select locally adapted genetic material of superior plants. Separate sexes occur and only female trees will produce the bluish/purple fruit which may be somewhat biennial in heavy fruit set. There are unquestionably many plants still to be discovered in the wild superior to any of the named cultivars available in commercial trade today. This search should perhaps best be made in winter as one of the
major objections of this species is the browning of the foliage (mentioned above) which often occurs in extremely cold weather on many individuals. Also, owners of the property with trees of interest should be contacted for permission before any cuttings are taken.

Cuttings of young juvenile red cedar plants can be rooted relatively easily if taken December - February, treated with a commercial rooting hormone as recommended for conifers, and either placed under intermittent mist on a timer or in a high humidity chamber to maintain moisture levels in the cutting until rooting occurs. As mentioned above when talking about red cedar as a Christmas tree - this species has the potential to desiccate and dry out very quickly with rapid transpiration. Good moisture control for high humidity is far more important for cutting propagation of this species than most other conifers.

As landscape plants age and transition from a seedling juvenile stage to an adult physiological condition - rooting becomes increasingly difficult (the older the plant, the more difficult to root cuttings from it). This becomes a significant factor as young trees which can be propagated do not demonstrate the final plant character or fruit quality; and when wonderful fine old trees are selected to propagate from in the wild or in a landscape planting - they may not be possible to root. But one should at least try to root desirable older plants as individuals also vary in this character and some older trees do retain better abilities to be rooted than others.

The lower portions of a plant remain most juvenile and the closer to the root/shoot union of the plant one can take a cutting the more likely it will root. On older trees generally no vegetative growth remains near the base eliminating this possibility. Most of the common commercial cultivars are relatively easy from cuttings which accounts for their more frequent production.

To propagate difficult-to-root individuals - grafting onto seedling red cedar (or rooted cuttings of J. scopulorum 'Skyrocket') understock is commonly practiced. Container grown understock plants are sually brought into greenhouses in winter to break dormancy and start active cambial activity. Dormant scions from desirable clones or selected individuals are grafted with a side veneer graft and wrapped with budding rubbers or a soft poly tape to prevent moisture loss from the cut surfaces until
the scion and understock have grown together with a good union.

During this period the plants should be held in high humidity chambers or in shade to prevent moisture loss - and at temperatures of 50-70F to encourage active cell division for healing. Since conifer grafts generally heal more slowly than broadleaf species, and since red cedar rapidly loses water and dries out - it is very important to ensure that the scion does not dehydrate before union occurs. As the scion begins growth, the top of the understock can gradually be cut back.

(As a side issue on grafting of red cedar - the species is often also used as inexpensive understock for other species of junipers - particularly on the "standards" of weeping groundcover types which are so popular on the west coast. Grafting scions of Juniperus horizontalis or J. procumbens on to eastern red cedar at 4-9' high can result in spectacularly beautiful cascading plants as they age. Of course, the red cedar branches are gradually removed with time leaving just the "cedar" trunk with the branches of the other species cascading around it. "Topworking" of "excess" red cedar plants on your property can tranform the plants into interesting novelties - and offer a potential commercial product to produce for the nursery industry.)

To obtain a few plants for personal use - one could also consider air-layering branches of desired plants. This propagation technique is the most likely to yield success on difficult materials for an amateur as the parent plant continues to provide full moisture and carbohydrate support to the propagule during the rooting process no matter how much time is required to successfully complete it.

A selected branch 6-8" long can be girdled (remove a 1" lengh of bark completely around the branch) or cut partially through the stem (not cutting too far through or the stem may be so weakened it will break off in wind or a storm). Then treat with rooting hormone at the wound, wrap the wounded area in a 2-4" ball of moist spagnum/peat moss pressed around the stem, and enclose in a moisture tight polyethylene barrier to prevent drying of the rooting medium. If the air layer zone is in sunshine it is useful to further wrap it in reflective foil or to paint the plastic white to prevent overheating of the rooting zone. Check periodically for root development. When the air-layer has a good mass of roots - usually in two to four months, cut it from the tree. Harden it off and transplant it as you would any newly rooted woody plant cutting. Air layering is not used commercially on red cedar due to its inefficiency and high cost - but it can be very effective.

Since graft propagation is more complex and expensive with less percentage success - cultivars which must be grafted are less commonly seen in commercial trade and are more expensive when
they do appear. In one sense, considering how variable the species is - and how widespread it is in America - it is surprising there are so few cultivars in the U. S. nursery/landscape trade. When Fine Gardening Magazine was searching around the country to find comercial sources to include in their article (included at the end of this article) - they found many nurseries that have carried a number of red cedar cultivars in the past have just recently dropped them from their lines due to lack of demand; and that others are considering eliminating them in the near future. When the public and landscape professionals do not use plants when they are available nurserymen have no choice but to stop producing them. The largest wholesale nursery in the southeastern U. S. today lists 20 cultivars of Juniperus chinensis in their catalog - and none of the native red cedar. It is conceivable that in a few years as corporate nurseries move to standardized popular crops, that production of red cedar cultivars could almost disappear in this country. However, one large wholesale nursery in New York indicated they had 10,000 seedling plants up to 12' in height in their fields and they always sell well for them - to the point they have difficulty in keeping them in stock.

Many of the cultivars which exist have been selected and developed in Europe where the species was introduced before 1664, is exotic and therefore more exciting. Many of these cultivars have probably never been introduced to the U.S. as there is so little interest and demand to begin with; and the two year post-quarantine period requirement on imported Juniperus creates a significant barrier that few are able and/or willing to fight to get them into this country. If one is going to go to that much effort - it is more likely that it will be to get a dramatic horticultural cutlivar of some exotic species than a local plant no one is too excited about to begin with. The best collection of Juniperus virginiana I have noted in traveling is in the Valley Gardens conifer collection just outside London on the Winsor Castle grounds. It is likely that somewhere in Germany there would be extensive collections as well. Since the Europeans have developed so many red cedar cultivars it is surprising that it is so seldom grown commercially overseas when so many of our other native plants have become so popular in Europe and Asia.

A search of literature available in my office (NYBG = New York Botanical Garden Enclopedia of Horticulture; Hortus Third; den Ouden - Manual of cultivated Conifers; AHL = Andersen Horticultural Library Source List of Plants and Seeds; D = Dirr - Manual of Woody Landscape Plants; K =Krussman - Manual of Cultivated Conifers); additions from Fine Gardening's (FG) search; a list from Dr. Lighty of Mt. Cuba center; and notes from the European sabbatic leave has turned up the following 77 cultivars seen or reported to exist. Many are quite rare and some probably do not exist in the U.S.

'Albospica' (syn. 'Argentea') - white tips on branches; some twig tips green and others cream or white; introduced before 1891 (K, FG, NYBG, Hortus).

'Ambigens' - low, prostrate shrub; saucer-shaped; branches prostrate, spreading or subascendent (FG, Hortus).

'Aurea' - yellowish foliage; variegated foliage green and gold (FG).

'Blue Cloud' - large shrub; grey-green foliage; supposedly a hybrid between J. v. 'Glauca' and J. chinensis 'Pfitzeriana'; long feathery young shooots emerge from all over the plant providing an unkept appearance (D, FG).

'Blue Mountain' - listed by Vermeulen & Sons in 1985 (Mt. Cuba).

'Boskoop Purple' - slender conical; foliage turns purple-brown in winter; fast-growing; a mutation of 'Hillii' introduced by F. J. Grootendorst in 1963 (K, FG, NYBG, den Ouden)

'Burkii' - broad columnar to conical (also listed as narrowly-pyramidal?); glaucous foliage turns steel blue in fall and later purplish in winter; dense; male; introduced before 1930 (D, K, FG, NYBG, Hortus).

'Burkii Compacta' - no description (AHL).

'Canaerti' - columnar to conical shape with nearly horizontal picturesque branches (particularly dramatic in the plains states) with dark green foliage; female with heavy fruit production; named in honor of Canaert D'Hamale of Belgium before 1868 (D, K, FG, NYBG)

'Carolina' - unknown Dutch selection (listed in catalog) (FG)

'Chamberlaynii' - spreading; branches horizontal to pendulous (stout spreading); branchlets elongated, pendulous; leaves most appressed, glaucous; ash-grey; female; English cultivar before 1850 (K, FG, den Ouden).

'Cinerascens' - conical and open; new growth ash-grey to silvery; French introduction before 1855 (K, FG, Hortus).

'Columnaris' - erect, columnar (Hortus).

'Compacta' - no description (FG, AHL).

var. creba - a botanical variety - the slender growing type encountered in the NE U.S. as opposed to the broader growing southern type. (K).

'Cupressifolia' - narrow/slender conical form; with fine texture medium green (also reported yellow-green) foliage; confused in trade and trees are sold under this same as 'Hillspire' (note from Krussman - developed by D. H. Hill in 1925 and given this name in 1946. The true name should be 'Hillspire' as 'Cupressifolia' had been given to another European clone in 1932.) (D, K, FG, Hortus)

'Cupressiformis' - conical shrub; lacking trunk with many branches from ground (Hortus).

'DeForest Green' - columnar to conical; like 'Canaerti' but darker green and faster growing (FG, NYBG).

'Dundee' - no description (FG, AHL).

'Elegantissima' - conical 6-10'; slightly pendulous golden-tipped branches with bronzy color in fall - considered one of the most beautiful forms in existance; cultivated before 1882 (K, FG, NYBG).

'Emerald Sentinel' - (? Conard Pyle - listed by Huber 1985) (Mt. Cuba).

'Fastigata' - narrowly columnar; branchlets erect; leaves bluish green; male clone?; introduced 1933 (K, FG, Hortus).

'Filifera' - broadly conical; long slender weeping branchlets; introduced by D. H. Hill before 1923 (K, FG, AHL).

'Fiore' - unknown Dutch selection (seen in catalog) (FG).

'Frosty Morn' - new Bressingham Nursery cultivar (seen in England) with blue foliage - likely scopulorum;

'Glauca' - narrowly columnar and loosely upright forms; the silver red cedar with several varying clones grown under this name; densely branching, fast growing (D, K, FG, Hortus).

'Glauca Compacta' - Hess Nursery listing 1985 (Mt. Cuba).

'Glauca Pendula' - conical habit, branches spread horizontally, branch tips and branchlets nodding; male flowers very numerous, yellow in May; cultivated before 1909 in France but no longer in culture (K).

'Globosa' - dense globe shaped; to 3 ft in diameter; very densely branched, dark-green foliage, more brown in winter; known since 1891 (D, K, FG, den Ouden)

'Gotelli Weeping' - (FG, AHL).

'Grey Owl' - low, spreading shrub; a spreading form similar to Pfitzer juniper with silvery grey foliage;
hybrid of J. virginiana 'Glauca' X Pfitzer juniper from Gebr. Caam, Oudenbosch, Holland in 1938,
introduced by F. J. Grootendorst in1949; lower and wider than 'Blue Cloud' (D, K, FG, den Ouden)

'Hillii' (syn. 'Pyramidalis Hillii' )- dense, columnar with spreading branches 6-12'; greenish-blue
foliage turning purple (pink-plum) in winter; introduced by D. H. Hill in 1916 (D, K, FG, NYBG)

'Hillspire' (syn. 'Cupressifolia Green') - symmetrical conical; bright green summer and winter; female (K, FG, NYBG, AHL).

'Henryi' - (possibly Chamaecyparis henryi?) - (AHL).

'Horizontalis' - prostrate, mat-like; branchlets slender, whip-like; leaves glaucous, scalelike (Hortus).
"Plants in the nursery under this name have been shown by Hillier and Welch consistently to be J.
horizontalis or a form thereof" (K).

'Horizontalis Glauca' - known in American nurseries as 'Blue Coast Juniper' is actually J. v. 'Chamberlaynii' (K).

'Idyllwild' - Monrovia Nursery listing (AHL).

'Keteleeri' - also listed under J. chinensis (FG, Hortus)

'Kobendzii' - narrow columnar; densely branched; From the Kornik Arboretum, Poland 1932 (K,
FG)

'Kobold' - globe shaped dwarf; dense, branches thin, branchlets upward to spreading; bluish-green;
introduced in Holland in 1952 by N. Th. Bosman, Boskoop (K, FG, den Ouden).

'Kosteri' - low spreading bush; identification not sure, may be a wide, flat variation of 'Pfitzer'; ; male,
wide-spreading, mound-shaped bush to 4'; branch tips plumose, leaves green and mostly scalelike;
possibly Dutch introduction in 1870 by M. Koster & Zonen, Boskoop (D, K, FG, Hortus)

'Lebretonii' - no description (Hortus).

'Manhattan Blue' - compact conical; foliage more blue-green than 'Glauca'. Reported as both female
and male cultivar in literature; possible scopulorum; introduced before 1963 by R. Scott of
Manhattan, KS (D, K, FG, NYBG, den Ouden).

'Mission Spire' - Hess Nursery Listing 1985 (Mt. Cuba).

'Monstrosa' - low spreading shrub; witch's broom-like branching; very slow-growing. 1867 (K, FG).

'Moonglow' - unknown Dutch selection (seen in catalog - and at Bresshingham Nursery); very likely scopulorum (FG, AHL).

'Nana Compacta' - globe-shaped dwarf; irregular in outline; bushy 1-3' in size; less compact than 'Globosa' and more irregular; greenish-blue in summer, purplish in winter; from Holland before 1887 by C. G. Overeynder, Boskoop (K, FG, den Ouden).

'Nova' - narrow upright, columnar; branchlets erect; blue-grey to grey-green foliage. Verbal report it
is produced by some nurseries as a seed-grown "cultivar" with slight variations among various seedling individuals (D, FG, Hortus).

'Pendula' - weeping branches on tree form plant; wide-spreading; introduced in England before 1850 (D, K, FG, NYBG, AHL).

'Pendula Nana' - dwarf; horizontal to nodding branches; round-topped tree; Hillier Nursery 1928 (K, FG, den Ouden).

'Pendula Viridis' - weeping; open habit with limp arching branches, branchlets hang downwards; bright green foliage; female; introduced in England before 1862 (K, FG, Hortus).

'Plumosa' (syn. 'Plumosa Alba' or 'Plumosa Argentea') - conical; graceful habit, leaves mainly needle-like; branch tips white; sulfur yellow or gray-green. Introduced in Holland before 1887 by H. Van Nes, Boskoop (K, FG, Hortus).

'Prostrata' - low growing; much like J. horizontalis in form (FG, Hortus).

'Pseudocupressus' - very narrowly columnar; branchlets erect and hugging stem closely; bluish-green foliage; Introduced by Morton Arboretum 1932 (K, FG, Hortus, den Ouden, AHL).

'Pumila' - globose; very compact dwarf shrub; branches erect and spreading; young leaves
bluish-white above (den Ouden).

'Pyramidalis' - (Dirr - unfortunately a collective name for pyramidal-growing forms); naturally
pyramidal; bright green turning purplish; 4 times as high as wide; introduced by D. H. Hill Nursery 1922 (K, D, NYBG).

'Pyramidiformis' (syn. 'Hillii') - narrow columnar to 40'; dark green foliage; ("introduced in 1922" = 'Pyramidalis'?) (K, FG, Hortus, AHL).

'Ramlosa' - no description (FG).

'Reptans' - prostrate dwarf; the 'Reptan' of commerce is often a misnamed J horizontalis according to
Krussman - true plant no longer cultivated?; green foliage; male clone; introduced in (East) Germany 1918 (K, FG, Hortus).

'Robusta Green' - narrow columnar habit, densely branched; from USA, origin unknown (K). Listed by Dirr as J. chinensis. >'Schottii' - small, narrowly columnar; 3 times as tall as wide; thin twigs; light green to yellow-green foliage in winter (differing thus from 'Canaertii'); scalelike leaves, discoloring in winter; widely grown in England; female; introduced in England before 1855 (K, FG, NYBG, Hortus).

'Seedling Spreader' - Foxborough Nursery introduction (AHL).

'Sherwoodii' - narrow columnar; branch tips are cream-yellow in spring, solid green in summer, violet (dark plum) in winter; similar to 'Canaertii'; introduced in Oregon in 1935 by Sherwood Nursery ompany of Portland (K, FG, den Ouden).

'Silver Spreader' - low spreading shrub; similar to 'Grey Owl' but more silvery; Introduced by Monrovia Nursery 1954 (D, K, FG, AHL).

'Slender' - narrow upright form?; Polly Hill cultivar (Mt. Cuba).

'Skyrocket' - very narrowly columnar, pencil-point form; branchlets erect, good blue foliage. Though often reported or sold as J. virginiana; almost certainly a scopulorum cultivar (FG).

'Smithii' - also listed as J. chinensis 'Arbuscula' (Hortus).

'Sparkling Skyrocket' - very narrowly columnar, pencil-point form; a white-variegated mutation from 'Skyrocket' introduced by Vermeulen 1985; again certainly scopulorum (FG).

'Staver' - upright; grown by Coles and Angelica Nurseries in PA & MD - local cv.; catalog (Mt. Cuba).

'Stover' (misprint of 'Staver'?) (Mt. Cuba).

'Taylor' - listed in The Public Garden/Jan 87; Nebraska Statewide Arboretum introduction 1987 (Mt. Cuba).

'Topiary' - Greenbriar Farms Ltd Nurseries, Chesapeake, VA (AHL).

'Triomphe d'Angers' - conical; good white variegated form with white tips over entire tree; slow growing; introduced before 1891 (K, FG, den Ouden).

'Tripartita' - dwarf irregular form; low, dense and spreading to 5'high and 10-14' across; branches irregularly arranged; leaves mostly needle-shaped; male; introduced 1867 (D, K, FG, Hortus).

'Variegata' - white variegation (FG)

'Venusta' - columnar; light bluish-grey foliage; differs from 'Burkii' in having leaves ash-grey, not
glaucous-blue (FG, Hortus).

'Vuyk' - unknown Dutch selection (seen in catalog) (FG).

The editors of Fine Gardening magazine searched widely throughout the U.S. to find commercial sources for various cultivars - and ended up with only 10 cultivars generally available. They published the following list of suppliers located:

Foxborough Nursery, 3611 Miller Rd., Street, MD 21154. Mail-Order. Good cultivar list, but not all in stock. Will custom propagate. Write for information.

Girard Nurseries, P. O. Box 428, Geneva, OH 44041. Mail-Order. Catalog Free.

Hess Nurseries, Inc., P. O. Box 326, Rt. 554, Cedarville, NJ 08311. Wholesale only. Ships newly grafted plants in small pots. Minimum order $50; order directly or through your local nursery.

Michael A. Kristick, 155 Mockingbird Rd., Wellsville, PA 17365. Mail-Order. Write for information on plant sizes, prices and shipping.

Monrovia Nursery Co., 18331 E. Foothill Blvd., Azusa, CA 91702. Wholesale only. Good collection - ships many sizes nationwide. Order through your local nursery.

Schlichenmayer's Old Farm Nursery, Inc., 5550 Indiana St., Golden, CO 80403. Mail-Order. Price list free. Write for information on plant sizes and shipping.